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In this issue | Short summary


N 4-5 [124-125] July-October 2003


NOTA BENE

According to the long-standing tradition, this issue is led off by the address to the readers by Valeria Uralskaya, Editor-in-chief, where she summarizes the 2002-2003 ballet season. Among the global events of the season where the tercentenary festivities in St. Petersburg, a city where arts are perhaps the most prominent personae. On these pages, we have and will, during this entire year, cover the anniversary events in the choreographic arts. Festivals, premieres, concerts indoors and outdoors, conferences and seminars have gingered up the already eventful reality of St. Petersburgs life.

Moscow, even though much calmer, has nevertheless also seen some important touring guests Paying due respect to the foreign artists, we still can be rightfully proud of both repertoire and performers skills of our own ballet.

So much the sadder is it to realize that the climate in both our theaters and, worse yet, in the structure of their ballet productions, is losing its former artistic purity and ceases to be a holy zone of spirituality.

I am pleased to remark that our regional theaters are gradually lifting up their heads The scene of the so called contemporary dance theaters, which was vigorously evolving in the past seasons, has some-what slowed down... The state of folk groups, though, causes anxiety. The complex processes of the fiscal policy in the mainly touring mode of these entities lives jeopardize their very existence in their traditional makeup and status.

The Editor-in-chief briefly speaks about the magazines achievements during the season and shares some plans for the future. The edito-rial board has published a special issue of the magazine in the series Materials for the History of the 20th Century Ballet: Contemporaries Testimony. This, the third special issue in the series, is dedicated to professional education during the past century. Our magazine for children, Studia Antre, has achieved stability as a periodical. The newspaper Linia Zhurnala Ballet is gaining popularity.

This coming fall we will be issuing St. Petersburgs Mirrors, an album by the famous artist-photographer Nina Alovert.

Next year will see the 10th anniversary of our magazines annual award, The Soul of the Dance. The solemn ceremony will be held in Moscow where new winners will receive their prizes. We intend to expand the geography of the laureates concerts.

THE NAME IN BALLET

All the articles in THE NAME IN BALLET column of all this year's issues are dedicated to the creative work of St. Petersburg's choreographers as to mark the 300th anniversary of the city on the Neva River.

Larisa Abyzova talks about the beginning of the choreographer Igor Belsky's artistic career. "Having graduated in 1943 from the Leningrad Choreography School, Belsky three years later came back to his alma mater to become one of the youngest teachers in the school's history. And his very first lessons gave birth to his first experimentations in dance composition. During those years he was staging character dances for his students and also himself performing his own creations on stage in partnership with Nina Anisimova

"In 1949 Belsky made his formal debut in theater, namely, at the Malyi Opera Theater of Leningrad, having staged the dances in Tchaikovsky's opera Cherevichki. A year later Piotr Gusev gave him an opportunity to do some staging at the Kirov Opera and Ballet House the female dance with stone jugs and the male Lezginka with a female soloist in the opera Demon by Anton Rubinstein. Yet another year later Belsky staged the dances in the opera Mazepa by Tchaikovsky for which he won acclaim of the critics.

Belsky's compositions have shown that for him the only means of expression is dance. Thus gradually the choreographer was approaching his first major work the ballet A Shore of Hope. Abyzova meticulously describes the ballet, aspiring to prove that Belsky's sym-phonism is rooted in the experimentations of Feodor Lopukhov which were forcibly cut short."

Tatiana Kuzovleva's article A Pilgrimage to the Country of Ballet is dedicated to the dance world of Nicholai Boyarchikov. "Different epochs appear there Antiquity, Middle Ages, Renaissance, the Enlightenment, the Silver Age But through them all we see the modern human being with ever the same eternal problems, who is at the same time the author of a ballet and who wishes to comprehend the supreme purpose of being and shares this wish with other people.

Boyarchikov is a Petersburgian to the backbone; he has been nurtured by the St. Petersburg culture and, being congenial to it, expresses it in his ballets. His theater is a phenomenon very much peculiar to St. Petersburg. As in the city itself, there is in it a lot of the speculative and metaphysical, a great deal of mysteries, symbols, and phantasmagorias. In the same way it blends in different ages and styles, the funny and the tragic, the explicit and the inconceivable. It is inhabited by double-gangers, monsters and martyrs. The Petersburgian colors pervade not only his Three Cards (after The Queen of Spades), The Marriage after Gogol's play or Petersburg after Andrei Bely's novel, but also Faust, The Nutcracker and Boris the Czar.

Natalia Sheremetievskaya shares her memories of Boris Eifman, whose creative quests she has been following since 1970's. She talks about the first programs of the Leningrad Ballet Ensemble (now the Boris Eifman's Ballet Theater of St. Petersburg), which the choreographer has been leading since 1977. The article presents Eifman's artistic views, his principles of visualization of the contemporary music and his new devices and means of expression.

A good part of the story is dedicated to an analysis of Eifman's work with his best performers A. Osipenko, G. Markovsky, V. Mikhailovsky and V. Galdikas.

"While in the beginning Eifman addressed mainly young audiences, taking into consideration their interests and tastes, he soon began to allow himself to address what was really interesting for himself. Those have been philosophical matters reflected upon in the classical works of literature, particularly Dostoevsky's Idiot, Bulgakov's Master and Margarita, Shakespeare's Twelfth Night and Beaumarchais's Marriage of Figaro.

"Today, the Boris Eifman's Ballet Theater of St. Petersburg has gained renown all over the world, and the route of its tours passes through many countries and continents. Recently Eifman expanded his collection of decorations: President Alexander Kvasnevsky of Poland has honored him with the top award of the Republic The Commodore Cross of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland for an outstanding contribution to Polish-Russian cultural cooperation".

Nikita Dolgushin: All Work and No Pause is an article by Olga Rozanova. "In 2001 the St. Petersburg Theatrical Library issued a bibliography of Nikita Aleksandrovich Dolgushin's artistic works. It's a most interesting document. Browsing through some one hundred pages that enumerate what this amazing person a famed dancer, choreographer, educator, scene-designer, essayist and art historian has done during four decades, one can't help wandering at the scope and variety of his truly titanic work. And the amount of works written about him! Virtually none of the about three hundred onstage works of Dolgushin's, both as an artist and a choreographer, have been ignored by the critics. If collected, these materials would amount to more than one volume to complement the treatise Nikita Dolgushin by the prominent Russian ballet historian V. M. Krasovskaya.

"Dolgushin went on working even at the age when artists usually quit the stage, in a year producing almost ten works with classical and contemporary style choreography in miniatures and one-act ballets by G. Alexidze, R. Petit, J. Limon, and N. Boyarchikov, and in his own compositions."

During the last two decades his main activities have been the leadership of the choreography department and the ballet troupe of the St. Petersburg Conservatory and, of course, the staging of ballets. The author goes on to narrate of the happenings dedicated to Feodor Lopukhov, Waslaw Nijinsky and Leonid Yakobson which Dolgushin had organized; of his programs The Golden Age and The Silver Age; and of new versions of classical ballets and original compositions.

The article by Natalia Zozulina about Yuri Petukhov begins as follows:

"'An award has found its hero' this might have been a comment to a real ballet sensation that happened at the 2003 Golden Mask Festival. The St. Petersburg troupe under Yuri Petukhov was awarded one of the special jury prizes, that for the program of the renewed master-pieces of Leonid Yakobson Rodin and The Wedding Procession.

The article explains how the young choreographer was able to raise the professional level of the troupe, which, despite the proud title of an Academia ballet theater, seemed to have been lost for the sublime art. Even its real, once glorified name, given to the ensemble by its creator, the legendary choreographer Yakobson, the name of Choreographic Miniatures, seemed gone forever.

Nicholai Boyarchikov's favorite dancer, Yuri Petukhov sought and found opportunity for artistic contacts with other choreographers of the time, such as Oleg Vinorgadov, May Murdmaa, Nikita Dolgushin, and Leonid Lebedev. Petukhov gloried in dramatic reincarnation the inner one reaching out to the souls of his characters. Having taken leadership of the theater at a peak of his performing career, he realized perfectly well that it was a troupe with a unique history. It would've been ill advised, for example, to get rid of the classical repertoire that had been refined during the previous decade as well as to forget the legacy of the great Leonid Yakobson.

Luckily, the new leader had held the founder's name in reverence. When he talks about the damage done, he is always bitter: 'Yakobson is all but forgotten. His choreography was crossed out for an entire generation of the audience. Today, it is not enough just to restore his masterpieces. His art needs powerful promotion. There is no other genius of his rank in our modern ballet history.' After a year and a half of Petukhov's leadership there is no doubt that he is destined to reverse the situation and to prepare a worthy celebration of the forthcoming Yakobson's centennial.

NEW BALLET

The NEW BALLET column presents some premiere ballet productions at various Russian theaters.

- Alexander Maksov relates of the two-act ballet Desire under the Elms staged by Yury Puzakov at the Chuvashia State Opera and Ballet House based on the well-known play by Eugene O'Neille to the music assembled out of various pieces by Leonard Bernstein and Samuel Barber.

"This production will never please those who only seek amusement in ballet", Yuri Puzakov speaks to his audience. "We wish to reflect upon mysteries of the human soul". The choreographer has managed to turn a kitchensink drama into a poetical ballade and to crate a multilayered philosophical spectacle where one can find everything from dramatic tension to American backwoods local color with its philistine country-style gayety, to the yearnings of the Southern Texan night, to exquisite love.

- Valery Ivanov's article is dedicated to One-act Ballets' Night to the music of Rodion Shchedrin (comprising A Lady with a Lap-Dog and The Carmen Suite) at the Samara Opera and Ballet Theater dedicated to the composer's 70th anniversary. Rodion Shchedrin and Maya Plisetskaya, for whom the music was written, had arrived from Munich to attend the performance.

While The Carmen Suite has seen dozens of productions all over the world, A Lady with a Lap-Dog, which is based on a Chekhov's short story had only been staged once (at the Bolshoy in 1985). The Samara productions are not a mere repetition of the previous renderings but rather the original works of the Samara ballet troupe's artistic director Nikita Dolgushin (The Carmen Suite) and the Theater's staging choreographer Nadezhda Malygina (A Lady with a Lap-Dog ).

The young choreographer N. Malygina has successfully conveyed the characters' moods, the exquisite development of their relationships, Chekhov's lyricism, and the characteristic aura of the time. "The choreographer gives one a chance to peer into each and every character, both major and minor. Each one is endowed with a unique individuality, clearly outlined behavior and orchestic visualization."

The specific characteristic of Dolgushin's Carmen Suite is the absence of the Torero. The choreographer is fully focused on Jose and Carmencita. "The orchestic lexicon of Jose and Carmencita's dialogues comprises various styles. The acute classical pas and uplifts are followed by acrobatic tumbles."

The writer carefully analyzes the principals' performances, praising their dancing techniques and acting talents.

The article ends with quotations by Plisetskaya and Shchedrin, who have acknowledged the commendable quality of the orchestra under conductor Yarem Skibinsky and "the excelent work of the scenedesigner Murvanidze."

- Arkady Sokolov-Kaminsky's article Impishly about Serious Matters is about Boris Eifman's ballet-musical Who Is Who.

"The new production of this inventive choreographer from St. Petersburg is about diverse destinies of Russian emigres.

Eifman's spectacle consists of disconnected episodes that are beaded upon the plot's axis and staged in a rather grand manner. The artless plot is cemented by three human destinies, those of two Russian emigre dancers and an American show star. The two youths are devotees of the classical school of dance, but their talents find no market in the New World, where the resplendent show spirit reigns. This opposition between the non-demanded classical dance and the all-around pop-show is supposed to embody the drama and bring about a finale. The finale, however, is a happy one. One of the main characters creates a troupe that combines the two contrasting plastic elements, while the other one returns back to his motherland. Each one has chosen his own way. The price, however, is a loss of a friend.

There is a lot here that resembles the trivialities of well-known Western movies: showy fights, battering, chases, disguises. In a word, the serious matters are presented in a kitschy entourage, now piquant, now impish. The choreographer is at home with the plastic capacities of the Western show and is able to combine into a united spectacle the numbers that are almost concert-like in their completeness.

The musical material is highly diverse from Sergey Rachmaninoff to Duke Ellington to Samuel Barber."

- The article by Nina Rivenko and Alla Mikhaleva about the new Bolshoy production, A Lucent Stream (A. Ratmansky, to the music of D. Shostakovich), consists of two parts. The first one is a detailed excursion into the history. The authors analyze Shostakovich's attempts to create music for a ballet toon a contemporary subject; they recall the famous Feodor Lopukhov's production and its ban that followed accusations of "naturalism, formalism, ignorance of life and indifference towards it."

The second half of the article is a review of the new production staged by Alexey Ratmansky. Dwelling upon the score and the amusing and comical plot, the choreographer chose "to go through the music from the beginning to the end the way Shostakovich the genius had conceived it. The merry and witty ballet presents limitless opportunities for a "play" with time and the performers, which is exactly what is Ratmansky's particular strength. The choreographer's attitude towards time is that of an ironical yet benevolent deference. Not towards real "historical" time, to be specific, but towards the theatrical and artistic myth of the age. The rustic dances and prankish conflicts among the kolkhozniks are deliciously recognizable in somewhat nostalgic way and theatrically colorful. Easily and innovatively, Ratmansky interweaves together the lexicons of classical, character, folk and purely burlesque dances, linking the motions with unexpected yet organic transitions, which is perhaps the production's most fortunate feature.

On this happy dancing ground, the performers' individualities gleefully flourish as they respond to the choreographer's appeals with an almost "Komsomolic" spirit. The actor's zest here is closely intertwisted with the young principles' skills, and thus what would otherwise have been a merry ballet tomfoolery steers itself into the space of a serious spectacle with well-built parts, high performing and choreographic culture and, above all, a result that fulfills the design."

SEASON'S BOTTOM LINE

The SEASON'S BOTTOM LINE column addresses the creative work of various Russian theaters.

Olga Bogdanova's article relates of the manyfaceted and rich season at the Cheliabinsk Theater. The ballet troupe under the new artistic director Yelena Bychkunova has presented to the audience The Nutcracker in Sergei Bobrov and Henrikh Mayorov's version; the comical ballet Cavalry's Encampment (I. Armsheimer, choreography by M. Petipa, staging by G. Pribylov). Another premiere of Bobrov's in Cheliabinsk was a recreation of Swan Lake with new character dances staged by Juliana Malkhasyantz. The season triumphantly ended with the festival In honor of Yekaterina Maksimova."

Comments Clara Antonova: "At the close of the season the most attractive personalities for Cheliabinskians were their guests from Moscow, the principal dancers of the Kremlin Ballet Theater under Yekaterina Maksimova. The artists from the capital had danced at a gala night and performed the principal parts in Giselle, which was followed by Cinderella and Anyuta."

Yet another spring event took place in Cheliabinsk. It was a Ballet night at the Culcural Palace of Railroad Workers, where teachers and students of the M. I. Glinka State Conservatory of Magnitigorsk were performing. They presented a premiere of an extended concert program and a one-act ballet to the music of M. Moussorgsky A Night on the Scalped Mountain (choreographer E. Petrenko).

The sketch by A. Nikiforova relates of the first major foreign tour of the Udmurtia Ballet. The troupe had been on the road for almost three months and had crossed China North to South. The repertoire of this theater, which is located in the P. I. Tchaikovsky's birthplace, included The Nutcracker and Swan Lake. The new and original staging of Swan Lake by Boris Myagkov inspired genuine interest, having been performed twenty-two times. The immediate plans of the ballet troupe is a staging of L. Minkus's Don Quixote and a ballet to the music of the Udmurtian composer A. Korepanov A Nightingale and a Rose.

The 2002-2003 season is an anniversary one for the Krasnoyarsk Opera and Ballet Theater. Lyudmila Usacheva in her sketch remarks, "During the 25th season, the Moscow choreographer Sergei Bobrov, who had already been cooperating with the Krasnoyarsk troupe for five years, became the Theater's chief staging choreographer. This season he presented to the audience a new staging version of Swan Lake, which attracted interest in Great Britain. The ballet troupe that was practically unknown to the British audiences received an engagement for twenty performances during the 2002 Christmas season in Cardiff, Wales. The tour turned out an overwhelming success. And now, during the next season, the Krasnoyarsk theater's foreign partners hope to see its performances again, including The Sleeping Beauty.

Galina Viktorova writes about the premiere of The Captain's Daughter, a ballet to the music of Tikhon Khrennikov staged by V. Butrimovich, which was a season-ending event at the A. S. Pushkin Opera and Ballet Theater of Nizhni Novgorod. "The new production has become a singular birthday present to the distinguished composer who has recently turned 90.

"As far as the season in general is concerned, I might say that the collective is going through tough times a succession of generations. The experienced masters leave stage; the young ones come to replace them. That's why the season had been marked by a great deal of artists' premieres: many dancers had had several debuts in different productions."

Following what has become a good tradition, the Novosibirsk Opera and Ballet Theater has marked the end of its 58th season with a premiere. This time it was Don Quixote to the music of A. Mincus staged by the Theater's chief choreographer Sergei Vykharev, after the choreography of Petipa and Gorsky. Speaking of the production in her story, Tatiana Grinevich calls it "a shining peak of the season."

"Characteristic for the current ballet repertoire have been festive intonations. A series of successful debuts have attested to the fact that the troupe has been replenished with new names In late 2002, the Sixth International Philip Morris Debut 2002 award ceremony was held at the Theater. The prize, established by the European Art Center in Switzerland, was awarded for the 2001-2002 season.

During the season the troupe celebrated the 50th birthday of its leader, Sergei Krupko, in the recent past one of the most brilliant character dancers of the Theater.

A brief sketch by Roman Volodchenkov presents a rather full history of the creation and onstage life of Mikhail Fokine's ballet Bluebeard. "Fokine is not experimenting, nor is he searching for new forms; instead, this work of his is an outcome of rich artistic experiences that he had accumulated. He is not afraid even to use quotations from the classical legacy of Petipa, from which the spectacle only benefits, gaining so badly needed logical construction and dynamic development.

"Today the spectacle comes back again to the Russian audience. The Ballet Theater led by Lilia Sabitova has revived it and shown on stage of the Mocsow Scientists' House."

Svetlana Potemkina brings some news from the Saratov Opera. "At the end of June, the ballet troupe completed the season with a premiere of Romeo and Juliet in L. Lavrovsky's choreography. The staging was by Mikhail Lavrovsky.

The playbill of the Sixteenth Sobinov Festival, traditionally held in May, included Don Quixote with guest stars from Moscow as well as this season's premiere Swan Lake, which Boris Blankov had transferred from the Mariinski. Thus in October 2002, the black swans made their first appearance on the Saratov stage.

Natalia Karachevskaya's sketch deals with the Voronezh premiere of Swan Lake, which coincided with the Slavic Letters and Culture Day. Dmitri Korneev, principal dancer for the Mariinsky, has staged the K. Sergeev's version.

BALLET SCENOGRAM

The first article in the column, Welcome to the Hell by Anna Galaida, reviews the exclusive production of The Rite of Spring at the Moscow Russian Chamber Ballet by the French choreographer Regis Obadiah.

The action of the new Rite of Spring unfolds after a technological catastrophe in a space reminiscent of the [Russian movie director] Tarkovsky's 'zone' [in his film The Stalker]. Obadiah, who has repeatedly worked with his beloved Stravinsky's music, in not only interested in the primeval horror and the worship of the unknowable law of life, which are presented in The Rite of Spring. The ritual dances of the six youths and six maidens may as well belong to the post-industrial era as to the millenniaold past. Having absorbed a rich variety of dancing techniques and styles, these dances are universal in their laconism. Obadiah collides the groups and then pulls them apart again, just as he first strips the ballerinas of their frocks and then makes them dress up again. He laboriously retells the creepy stories of a heartless world with no exit. But what one follows is not the tales of "a fear of peeking into one's own heart of hearts" but the beauty of the geometrical figures hinged on braces in a metal wall, the energy of the bodies covered with a layer of sand, the transformation of round dances that shoot out of their circle the hero and heroine, whom then the crowd throws at each other. Their story, too, is just an excuse for an ecstatic dance."

The BALLET SCENOGRAM column includes three articles. The first one, A Story of St. Petersburg, is by Olga Rosanova, who shares her impressions of the St. Petersburg performance of the Bolshoy's Queen of Spades staged by Roland Petit and marked by the State Award of Russia.

"For Petit, the Pushkin's character is above all a maniac, a compulsive gambler possessed with an idea, yet not without a sort of romantic aura. It was no coincidence that for this part the choreographer has chosen Nicholai Tsiskaridze a tall, good looking and uniquely endowed dancer. It was no coincidence, either, that he has reinforced his own concept with Tchaikovsky's Sixth Symphony, with its tragic power and divine lyricism, even though Petit has treated this work of genius, the composer's dying confession, rather unscrupulously, having broken up the continuity of the musical dramaturgy.

The reshuffled symphony, however, has ensured an impeccable logic of the action, constantly increasing emotional charge and a shockingly powerful explosion in the finale. Being true to himself, Petit explicitly opposes human individuality of a hero to a faceless society as seen through an ironic squint.

There is yet another argument in favor of the choreographer the brilliant acting works by Nicholai Tsiskaridze and Ilze Liepa that deserve their honorable place in the history of The Queen of Spades. In the Petit's ballet, the relationship of Hermann and the Comtesse are ambiguous now antagonists, now clandestine allies.

The madman's play with fate resulted in a wreck. However, the author came out a winner. Generously he has given the spectacle to the talented artists for a benefit night while he himself towered as a great maitre who has mastered all the mysteries of the trade. Perhaps his treatment of the Pushkin's novella will horrify the omniscient Pushkinists, while the revamp of the Tchaikovsky's symphony will hardly please the musicologists. Nevertheless, the Petit's ballet is a big time with the spectators, conquering more and more hearts. Whatever one's attitude towards The Queen of Spades 'to a French pitch', one cannot but acknowledge its great theatrical merits."

"Have you ever seen an Anacreontic ballet? If you have you are lucky indeed. Anacreontics, which had been popular since Noverre and Didelot, in the 20th century left the ballet scene." Thus begins the third article of the column, that by Olga Rosanova, about the ballet Sylvia which appeared in St. Petersburg in May 2003, and has been shown on stage of the Hermitage Theater. In the beginning, the author recalls the few previous renditions of Sylvia on Russian stage.

"The wonderful music of Delibes had inspired Georgy Aleksidze's one-act ballet for the students of A. Ya. Vaganova Academy of Russian Ballet. It was the educational and training purposes that had dictated the artistic design: the three-act ballet was squeezed into two scenes, the action reduced to a bare minimum and "dissolved" in dance, the details of the plot that are presented at length in the libretto, omitted. For Aleksidze, the story of Sylvia and Aminta is just an excuse for un-folding a range of dancing numbers prompted by the music. Aleksidze compiled the most valuable parts of the score into a suite according to the purposes of the plot and staginess. The alternation of mass, ensemble and solo dances ensures freshness of impression while allowing the young artists to show their various skills.

Involved in the ballet are students of all ages. The performance, which is built up entirely of dancing numbers, occupies almost an hour and inspires a never decreasing interest. So, what's the secret? There is none. What is, however, is a precise calculation by the maitre who knows how to spread the colors in order to escape humdrum, and the talent of a choreographer who has perfected his mastery of the art of composition.

The main and solo part performers have shown excellent training and an assured, for their ages, mastery of the stage.

There was Anacreontics in the form of contemporary classical ballet. Presented on stage where love and general merriment and even cups of wine. And there was something, too, that exists without any canons: the love of arts, a common joy of a job completed and well done. There was an event worthy of going down in cultural history of St. Peterburg."

WORLD OF BALLET

- An exclusive interview with Brigitte Lefevre, Director of the Paris Operas ballet troupe. The magazines own correspondent Victor Ignatov met her after the prize-giving ceremony of the Benois de la Danse award of the International Association of Choreography Workers, held at the Bolshoy Theater of Russia, in the aftermath of the world premiere of the ballet The Little Dancer of Degas that was performed in Paris, and in the anticipation of a staging, also in Paris, of Ivan the Terrible by Yuri Grigorovich.

The discussion covers a wide range of matters: the significance of the Benois de la Danse award, the activities of its international juri, the attitude towards competitions, the unique contributions to the art of ballet made by senior choreographers such as Yuri Grigorovich, Maurice Bejart and Roland Petit.

The guest has talked about the Paris Operas repertoire, about the principles on which the shaping of the repertoire is based, about the Bolshoys forthcoming tour in Paris, about the creation of The Little Dancer of Degas, and, of course, about her impressions of Moscow.

- Victor Ignatovs review of The Little Dancer of Degas, as if continuing the French theme. The ballets plot is closely linked to the history of this famous opera company. The idea belongs to Brigitte Lefevre, who once ran across a research published in relation to the restoration of the famous sculpture, A Little 14-year-old Dancer by Edgar Degas. The researcher had been able to trace down the fate of Maria von Goethen who was portrayed in the sculpture. The tragic history of the von Goethens fascinated Brigitte Lefevre so much that she asked the troupes chief choreographer Patrice Bar to stage a spectacle to the music that was, specifically for the occasion, commissioned to Denis Levaiand.

The ballet is about a poor girl from inner city of Paris. The character sketch of the heroine is a collective one, combining complex biographies of the two van Goethen sisters, both of whom had been engaged with the Paris Opera. Before that, however, one of the sisters, Maria, had for two years attended a dance school. In 1880 she was admitted to the ballet troupe and became a Degass model.

The sad story told in the ballet, interweaved in which are episodes of jail-life, calumny, jealousy, and betrayal, appears somewhat poeticized by Marias romantic visions of becoming a ballet star.

Patrice Bar uses the classical lexicon with some contemporary shading, which has freshened up the performance otherwise set up in a traditional ballet framework. Bars major success is in that his choreography is redolent of Degass painting, especially in the episodes of the dance class and of the ball at the Paris Opera.

- Stanislava Shchukovas article Roman Holiday, the last one in the column. It relates of the spring, 2003, tour of the Rome Operas ballet troupe under Carla Fracci at the Bolshoy Theater within the framework of the annual festival The Sweet-Cherry Forest by the invitation of the Maris Liepa Foundation.

The author presents the history of the creation, at the Russian Seasons, and contemporary recreation of the productions now shown by the Italians: Waslaw Nijinskys The Rite of Spring and The Games, as well as Mikhail Fokines Sheherazade. These lost ballets had been high spots in the history of the 20th century choreography.

Yet another revelation of the tour was The Three Dances of Isadora Duncan staged in 1990 by Millicent Hudson for Carla Fracci. She attempted to recreate the dance which Isadora, as if apprehensive of her childrens death, showed to Eleonora Duse. Nevertheless, the unquestionable high spot of the tour was The Rite of Spring, which Stravinsky himself considered the best staging of his ballet. The Rome ballet has reaffirmed his opinion.

- An article by the famous artist-photographer Nina Alovert about a mini-ballet called Mr. XYZ. It has been shown at the New York's Joyce Theater by the Ballet Tech troupe crated by the famous American choreographer Eliot Feld. Starring in this monologue ballet was Mikhail Baryshnikov. It wasn't the first time that the two work together. "Having quitted the classical ballet and committed himself to Art Nouveau theater, Baryshnikov ceased to create characters in ballet spectacles and constantly presents dance monologues instead. Generally, these are philosophical parables-confessions. Mr. XYZ has turned out a combination of a brilliant actor's work and a confession." The three last letters of the English alphabet in the title, according to the choreographer's conception, symbolize the end of a life.

Baryshnikov creates a psychological portrait of a very old man, which, of course, doesn't match the image of the 55-year-old dancer himself. Mr. XYZ's monologue is for Baryshnikov a means to express his bitter reflections of life and death. It was not for nothing that the artist has woven into the plot some pieces of his own stage life.

Having ascribed his autobiographical features unto his character, the dancer, as if being afraid of falling into mawkishness, portraits the old Mr. XYZ with no pity or condescension. "However, Baryshnikov's old man is multifaceted; sometimes he is ridiculous and even grotesque. Mr. XYZ is an conflation of plain mummery, irony, and tragic revelations of the artist himself."

INFORM-BALLET

The INFORM-BALLET column informs the readers of what's news in the world of dance.

Julia Churko analyzes the progress of the 13th Vitebsk Festival which can be rightly called a success. It demonstrated that the period of apprenticeship and imitations is coming to an end, and that the contemporary Belorussian choreography is gaining distinctive individuality. At the same time, the author reflects upon two directions in dance in general. The first one, which is called "educational" in the West and "healing" or "ritual" in the East, is dance that is viewed as therapeutic and educational. The second one, especially popular in the West, is so called "lab art" whose main purpose is a quest for new forms and new language.

Svetlana Potemkina's article The Forty Thieves Will Become Artists informs the readers about a ballet production at the choreography department of the Musical school in Cheboksary, Chuvashia. Ali Baba is the third ballet staged by school's principal Galina Nikiforova. A spectacle with such a distinctive Eastern character has not been seen on stage of the Chuvash Theater for many years. It is interesting to note that the most sensitive of all spectators to the Eastern plastic elements that pervade Ali Baba turn out to be young schoolchildren.

A Team with a Diamond Technique is an article that relates of a performing tour of the Moscow Gzhel Theater. Audiences in Europe, Asia, and Africa were watching the Russian dancers' art as they would a miracle. According to a Los Angeles Times reporter, the show Russia the Eternal performed in the USA "turned into an evening of acute sensations". A khorovod (a ring of dancers in a round dance) was turning around faster and faster inside another khorovod. All the compositions were hilarious and energetic, and spectators' souls seemed to dance along with the artists.

Dance Inversion will from now on be the name of an acclaimed festival of contemporary choreography in Moscow. It started as European Festival and later, having joined the ADF system, became International Festival at the K. S. Stanislavsky and V. I. Nemirovich-Danchenko Musical Theater of Moscow. Now it has expanded its geography and will be held not only in Moscow but also in Nizhni Novgorod, Rostov and Saratov. In an interview included in the column, director of the Festival, V. G. Urin, informs the readers of distinctive features and the program of this year's forthcoming event. In addition to the interview, there is brief information about the groups and choreographers that are expected to take part in the Festival.

Natalia Levkoeva writes about the Kazan Festival. "In April Kazan was again receiving guests of now the second Open Festival of Choreography Schools and Colleges, which was included into the federal program of preparation for the millennium celebration of the city of Kazan. Leading this audacious enterprise was an extraordinary woman, a legend of the Tartar ballet, and artistic director of the Kazan School of Choreography Ninel Yultyeva. Participating in this review of the country's potential in the art of dance were students from many cities of the Russian Federation.

The International Ballet Competition was been held in the very heart of Europe in Luxembourg for the seventh time in a row. This is the subject of another story by Natalia Levkoeva. During all these years the Competition has revealed to the world many remarkable names and has taken its due place among such world-famous forums as those of Moscow and Varna. This year has brought about new joy to Russian ballet lovers: the jury has awarded the Grand Prix to Natalia Osipova, a sophomore of the Moscow State Academy of Choreography.

Yaroslav Sedov shares his impressions of the Rudolf Nureyev Festivals in Kasan and Ufa. Both of them have old and rich traditions and belong to the rank of the most representative Russian regional ballet forums. This year both festivals have coincided late in May. Both of them boasted guests from big-city theaters as well as new productions: in Kazan, The Sleeping Beauty in the troupe leader Vladimir Yakovlev's version and A Futile Precaution staged by Oleg Vinorgadov, and in Ufa, The Blue Danube to the music of Strauss staged by Shamil Teregulov.

The readers will learn about the newly born Diaghilev Seasons International Festival in Perm. "The city where Diaghilev spent his childhood and youth, which he left for St. Petersburg and later for Paris where he founded his famous Russian Seasons, this very city held in the spring of 2003 a grand festivity in honor of its famed citizen. Within the framework of the festival, which has become the major outcome of the passed theatrical season in Perm, had been a ballet premiere of Peter I. Tchaikovsky's Sleeping Beauty and an opera premiere of R. Shchedrin's Lolita; performances of Balanchine's ballets; contemporary music concerts; an art exhibition from Boris Anisfeld's collection and the other one, that of Russian avantgarde; a symposium S. P. Diaghilev and Art of his Time in the Eyes of New Generations; round tables; and many other events."

"Arts Are Us" such was the slogan of the Third Delphic Games of the Youth of Russia held in Volgograd in the spring of 2003. Among the 18 officially announced nomination categories was one of "folk dance" which attracted twenty-four children's and youth's ensembles in two age groups from ten to fourteen and from fifteen to twenty one. Tamara Purtova who had attended the Games, tells the readers about the participants and their dances.

"I must admit that when heading for the master-class of the teachers from the scenic-dance chair of the Russian Theater Academy who teach students of acting and pop-art, as well as musical theater and directing departments, I hadn't anticipated much of success in dance there", writes the magazine's own reporter Natalia Sheremetievskaya. "But I was wrong. While they have demonstrated a variety of dance techniques, the performers' best trump card was, most certainly, their artistry and dedication."

Of interest to the readers will be information about the traditional international competition of choreographers held within the framework of the Koupio Dance Festival. The respectable jury granted the top award of the competition the Grand Prix to the French choreographer Isire Makuloluve for the composition The Face of Dance.

Yana Starikovich presents coverage of the World Championship in professional touch dancing held in the Kremlin.

A separate block of the INFORMBALLET column is dedicated to the tercentenary of St. Petersburg.

Svetlana Naborshchikova reviews the ballet without a plot Lander's Studies which was shown by the Mariisky Theater. Lander has set this "ballet about ballet" to the music of Carl Cherny's etudes, which are very familiar to anyone who has ever studied piano.

Anna Bogodist presents coverage of the art show of the photographer Nina Alovert who currently lives in the USA. This is indeed a sort of travel in time, for there are presented photographs of the last forty years. Most of them had been taken during performances or rehearsals of the Mariinsky Theater; about a quarter of them are dedicated to Boris Eifman's Theater, and a few, to the M. P. Moussorgsky Theater.

The readers will learn about the artistic career of the remarkable St. Petersburg ballerina Olga Moiseeva. Included into the program of the 11th International festival The Stars of the White Nights was a gala night in her honor in which her former student ballerinas took part.

Another St. Petersburg story is about the 12th scholarly readings History of Ballet: Source Studies held at the choreography department of the St. Petersburg Conservatory. According to what has already become a tradition, the ballet historians published results of their archival inquiries, which cast light upon some intriguing facts of our country's ballet history.

BALLET-PARADE

The BALLET-PARADE column features Alla Mikhailovas article The Golden Roland about The Golden Mask festival and national theatrical award. One may have different attitudes toward this prize, but there is no doubt that it has become an integral part of the Russian theatrical scene. The author goes on to tell about the winners and other participants and to analyze the ballet productions and the Russian contemporary dance that have been presented at the festival.

In the field of contemporary dance, The Golden Mask is gradually becoming an annual competition among the same people and groups. These, as a rule, are Yevgeni Panfilov (who participated in the 2002-2003 Mask posthumously), Olga Pona, Tatiana Baganova, Gennady Abramov and, more rarely, Sasha Pepeliaev

In the field of ballet, the range of the chosen has also shrunk almost byond limits. Here, Moscow and St. Petersburg, having disposed of redundant contestants, traditionally compete with each other Which brings one to an interesting proposition: what if the organizers consider holding the festival biannually, so as to allow time for fresh forces to accumulate and for the range of contenders to expand. On the other hand, then the capital would lose her privilege of having an annual parade of achievements, which is a shame, too.

BALLET TIME

The BALLET TIME column features The Moors Pavane, an article by the young scholar Gulnara Sabrekova. Its been over half a century that ballet stages all over the world present The Moors Pavane by Jose Limon to the music of Henry Purcell, one of the most brilliant choreographic interpretations of Shakespeares Othello. Having received a high acclaim immediately after the first release, it has firmly established itself in the repertoire of the most important troupes all over the world.

The author attempts a scholarly explanation to such a significant interest and discusses the aesthetical category of the tragic, the ritualistic significance of the action, and the genre on which the ballet is based (the medieval pavane with its inner expression in an extremely intimate atmosphere). She positions the artistic system of the American Art Nouveau dance as a cultural phenomenon of the 20th century and links the ethical aspect of the orchestic tragedy with dances significance as a Christian ritual.

The author presents some interesting facts about the composer and the choreographer and their aesthetic and artistic principles; she also reflects upon various acting interpretations of the ballet.

Indeed, The Moors Pavane embodies an endless experiment where an experienced spectator can discern both the tragedy of fate, which is so characteristic of Spanish culture, and the Christian motif of destruction of the TRUTH, which reveals itself in the form of a slaughter of an innocent victim. What is so startling here is the phenomenon of human passion, so perilous in its unpredictable spontaneous power that it inevitably leads to self-destruction and death. And finally, here, in the self-contained realm of Art Nouveau, the detachment and tragic loneliness so characteristic of the 20th century reveal themselves ever more clearly.



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